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巧言妙谏“三”字经——浅析《邹忌讽齐王纳谏》的六个“三”

2021-06-14 20:10  点击:[ ]

  "Zou Ji satirizes the king's admonishment" uses concise, simple and simple writing to engrave the image of Zou Ji, a resourceful, skillful in rhetoric, worrying about the emperor and patriotic.Whether it's Zou Ji's questioning or analogy,It's still the observations, opinions and random responses of the wives and concubines' guests,Regardless of King Qi's rewards and advice,It is still the admonition effect after the edict is issued,These descriptions and discussions have used the "Triple Method" ingeniously,The overall structure of the article presents a smooth, symmetrical, seamless and perfect beauty.Grasp the word "three" to make an essay,Can outline and guide,Understand the character image and thought theme of the article easily,The following are as follows.

  "Three Questions" and "Three Answers" See Disposition

  The article opens with a description of family trivialities between Zou Ji and Xu Gongbimei,Zou Ji said to his "more than eight feet,"Beautiful appearance" has doubts,I want to use the eyes and judgments of others to understand or confirm that I and Xu Gong are beautiful.The article wrote about his questions to his wife, 妾, and guests for two consecutive days.To his wife: "Which one is I and Xu Gongmei in the north of the city?""To the concubine: "Who and Xu Gongmei?""On the guest: "Which one is beautiful between me and Xu Gong?""The content of the "Three Questions" is the same,I always ask the other person who is more beautiful than Xu Gong,But if you take a closer look, you will find thatThe object, mood, and time of the question are different,The emotional color and tone of voice contained in the question are also different.The question to his wife was in "the court clothes,After the sight of the sight,It's quite self-glorious and complacent,The question blurted out,Joyful,I am full of intimacy and affection for my wife; asking questions about my concubine is to avoid being self-confident.Sent out after a little thought,There is a kind of truth-seeking,The meaning of anti-copy certificate,The tone and emotion are solemn and solemn; the question of the guest is a day after time has passed,After the guests came,Zou Ji chatted with the guests casually and asked questions.The tone is relatively plain and casual.Again and again,Asking questions again and again,勾画出邹忌对自己的美丽形象由自信得意到将信将疑再到不太自信的微妙的心态变化过程。细腻逼真,活灵活现。妻、妾、客三人身份不同,回答同样一个问题内容基本相同,都认为邹忌美于徐公,但是语气、口吻和感情色彩却不一样。妻的回答用了反问句兼感叹句,而且还有“君美甚”的强调,这是发自内心的热烈赞美,她为夫君的美丽绝伦而骄傲自豪,其爱恋之心、得意之态宛然可睹;妾的回答和妻相比少了一句“君美甚”,简单重复一句“徐公何能及君也”,有一点言不由衷,出于敬畏丈夫而不得不说,小心谨慎,不太自然;客的回答是阵述语气,貌似客观如实的评价,不带感情色彩,in fact,越是冷静客观,越能看出客人有求于人,阿谀奉承之意,真可谓老谋深算而不动声色。三个人由于身份不同,心态不同,目的各异,形之于外的答话措辞、句式、语气、口吻、感情色彩也各不一样,这种因人而异,因时而别,因势而造的声态口吻微妙地凸现了人物的性情神态,活画出情趣各异的人物形象,真要为《战国策》的写情摹态的艺术拍案叫绝啊!

  “三思”“三比”见智慧

  妻、妾、客人的异口同声的赞美、歌颂并没有让邹忌自鸣得意,忘乎所以,相反,等到“明日”,徐公来,邹忌再三观察对比,Thinking and analyzing,I understand my situation and the answers to my questions,The article wrote Zou Ji's "Thinking Three": First, "Which one should look atThink it's not as good",The second is "looking through the mirror and looking at yourself,It's so far away",The first two reflections are based on careful observation,Seriously compare based on facts,Draw the conclusion that "self ashamed" and "far too far".The third time is "Think of it at night,Said: ‘My wife's beauty is me,I am private; the beauty of my concubine,Fear me; the beauty of the guest,Desire for me too.""Zou Ji tossed and turned,insomnia,He was thinking,Who is more beautiful, me or Gong Xu?Why do my wife, concubine, and guest think I am more beautiful than Xu Gongmei?Are they telling the truth?Why are the answers surprisingly similar?.After some difficult and profound thinking,He finally understood,The real reason why his wife, concubine, 嘉宾们认为他比徐公梅更好:他的妻子更喜欢他,我的conc使他敬畏,顾客要他。他们都有自己的计划,他们都同意。其实,邹基远不如许公美这是不争的客观事实。他受骗了!他的老婆, concubine, 宾客出于自己的感受和想法欺骗了他。邹基一次又一次地经历了一遍又一遍地思考,才终于发现了这一点。这种“三思而后行”的描述范围从行为方式到语言心理学,充分表明邹基对美丽并不感到惊讶,头脑冷静务实,注意反射的良好质量。他既形貌美丽,他还有一颗力排众议,独立思考的美丽头脑,他的深思孰虑,他的观察感悟充分表现出他的智慧和深刻。

  如果说比美“三思”还是从日常家庭琐事的角度来刻绘邹忌的睿智和深刻的话,那么,入朝进谏,三次类比联想,则是从忠君爱国的家国大事的角度来凸现邹忌的智慧才华和优良品质。课文描写了“三比”。(邹忌)曰:“臣诚知不如徐公美。臣之妻私臣,臣之妾畏臣,臣之客欲有求于臣,皆以美于徐公。今齐地方千里,百二十城,宫妇左右莫不私王,朝廷之臣莫不畏王,四境之内莫不有求于王。由此观之,王之蔽甚矣。”邹忌由此及彼,由近及远,从“闺房小事”到“国家大事”,巧妙联想,有机联系,类比推理,得出“王之蔽甚矣”的结论。从“臣之妻私臣”想到齐王的“宫妇左右莫不私王”,从“臣之妾畏臣”联想到“朝廷之臣莫不畏王”,从“臣之客欲有求于臣”联想到“四境之内莫不有求于王”,三次类比联想,表明齐王遇到的情况和自己的处境非常相似,最后有力地推出“王之蔽甚矣”的结论。这种迂迥曲折、委婉含蓄而又情趣别致的说理方式当然容易为齐王所接受,说得齐王心花怒放,大呼叫“善”。这“三比”的描述不但凸现了邹忌的巧比妙喻,The extraordinary wisdom of associative reasoning,It also reflects his foresight,The good character of being loyal and patriotic,It really can be described as "two birds with one stone",Just right!

  "Three Rewards" and "Three Admonitions" See Your Mind

  In addition to depicting the image of the protagonist Zou Ji, "Zou Ji Satirizes the King of Qi"Through the plots of "Three Appreciations" and "Three Admonitions", he also portrayed the rare and precious character of King Qi, who is noble and noble king.From admonition like a stream,Frank and generous,Rule the country.King Qi listened to Zou Ji's advice,Not simply staying verbally,It's a lot of hard work,Really work hard,Immediately take to widen the way,Practical measures to revise politics.The text writes that the king of Qi ordered the "three rewards": "A group of officials, officials and people,Those who can face the widow,Rewarded;Rewarded; able to slander the city,Those who hear the ears of few people,Receive the reward."Reward for advice,Don't be afraid of “face thorns” and “slander” and open up your mouth,It shows King Qi's magnanimity and thoroughness in ruling the country.Face thorns,Blame face to face,Outspoken,Hit the nail on the head; slander the city,In public,Chapel or bazaar,Discuss publicly and criticize the king's mistakes and gains.So disregarding the dignity of the king,Such unscrupulous demeanor,Such violent accusations against the government,King Qi is not furious with thunder,On the slashing of crime,It's a public reward,Shanna Yayan,There is a majesty and grace of a king over the world, a heart of the sea, and a heart wider than the sky.Contrast King Zhou's lewdness and cruelty,To dig his heart out of the outspoken Bigan,The silly and stupid King of Chu exiled the loyal and upright Qu Yuan from an official.We can't help but admire King Qi's broad-mindedness and grandeur of governance.

  If the "Three Awards" directly reflect the courage of King Qi,Then the description of "Three Admonitions" is an indirect expression of Qi Wang's magnanimous character.Immediately after the "Three Awards",The article also wrote "Three Admonitions" (three admonitions and results)."Ling Chuxia,The group of ministers enters the admonishment,It's a market; a few months later,Progress from time to time; after the term,Although I want to speak,No one can enter".An edict offering a reward for advice has just been issued,Inside and outside the court,The princes and ministers,Scrambled,Admonish the king,Show a kind of dedication and wisdom,The enthusiasm for sharing worries for the country; a few months later,The number of admonitions dropped sharply,It's just intermittent and occasional admonitions,Illustrate political clarity,Guotai Minan,King Qi governed the country in an orderly manner; one year later,Even if people want to say something,I also feel that there is nothing to criticize or blame.visible,Qi Wang Guangna Yayan,Committed to national politics,Has governed the country almost perfectly (this is of course an exaggerated brushwork),And to the end,The country is rich and the people are strong,Reputation spread far,Yan, Han, Zhao, and Wei came to worship King Qi.It can be said,The prestige of Qi State does not depend on military and military rebellion,Kill and fight,Instead, relying on increasingly powerful national power and popular prestige to conquer the princes and countries.These "three admonitions" descriptions,Both are humble and courteous kings of Qi,The result of Shanna's advice,It also highlights the wisdom and magnanimity of King Qi from one side.

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