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巧设问题,搞好初中历史教学

2021-06-14 20:07  点击:[ ]

  The problem teaching of the junior middle school history course is a teaching mode that focuses on solving the problems that appear in the textbook, mainly based on the premise of fully mobilizing the initiative and enthusiasm of students, and ultimately can develop students' thinking and creativity.This model uses methods such as asking questions, analyzing problems, and solving problems, etc.Let students go through a process of discovering knowledge,Not only can it mobilize students to participate actively,And in the process of exploration, it can cultivate students' thinking ability and creative ability.

  1. The significance of implementing problem teaching in the junior middle school history classroom

  1. Cultivate students' interest in learning.

  Learning interest is an important driving factor for current students to learn effectively.It is also an important condition for students to learn actively in the future.Interest refers to the tendency of an individual to actively explore things,It makes the individual pay attention to something,And with positive emotional color.How to cultivate students' interest in learning?Question teaching can play an important role in this.A lot of psychological research shows thatChildren have a certain degree of curiosity and desire to explore,This is the child's intrinsic interest and need for knowledge,And these desires and needs can be strengthened when the event is successful.In problem teaching,Students explore and solve problems under the guidance of teachers,This can stimulate students' thirst for knowledge and exploration.When the problem is satisfactorily resolved,Students' thirst for knowledge and exploration will be strengthened,Enhance students' self-confidence,So as to provide a steady stream of impetus for students' learning.

  2. Cultivate students' thinking ability.

  In problem teaching,Teachers guide students to ask questions and solve problems,Can enable students to accurately understand the problem situation,Understand the relevant knowledge that is the basis for understanding and solving current problems,So as to enable students to seek the correct way to solve the problem; it can also cultivate the profoundness of students' thinking,This effect is particularly significant in the history classroom.Through question teaching,Students can understand things deeply,Look beyond the surface.E.g,When teaching the "Meiji Restoration of Japan" class,Teachers can guide students to ask questions: "China and Japan are also facing serious national crises.Also in the late feudal society,Also carried out bourgeois reforms,为什么中国戊戌变法失败了,而日本的明治维新却成功了?”

  3、培养学生的独立人格。

  问题教学有助于独立人格的培养。首先,问题教学要求学生在一定程度上独立地完成学习活动,不能依附教师;其次,问题教学要求学生在学习过程中要有批判思维以及创新思维,不能人云亦云,也不能唯书、唯上、唯师,而要进行自己的独立思考,提出自己的见解。问题教学的最大功能是形成创造型的个性。

  二、初中历史课堂实施问题教学的策略

  在当前初中历史课堂教学中,问答型问题教学法应用最为普遍,因此本文仅对这种教学策略进行论述。

  它包括创设问题情境的策略、提问策略、处理学生回答的策略,下面就这三个方面并结合中学历史教学进行论述。

  1、创设问题情境的策略。

  教师可以通过让学生面临要加以解释的现象或事例来创设问题情境,让学生面临着需要加以解释的事实,对教材中的有关现象产生“为什么会出现这种现象”的疑问。例如:在教“鸦片战争”这一节内容时,教师首先可以讲述鸦片战争后中国社会的变化,并且要学生找出鸦片战争发生的过程及其对中国社会的影响,从而产生“为什么会发生鸦片战争”的疑问。另外,教师还可以通过实物、图片、模型展示等直观手段创设问题情境。如在教有关北京人的内容时,我们可以把仿制的北京人的头像模型展示给学生,从而让学生真切地体会到北京人与现代人的不同之处。

  2、设置问题的策略。

  问题中既有当前教学的基本内容,又有与之相关的、值得学生思考的内容,把学习和思考延伸到课外,用课外知识巩固和补充课内知识,这样有利于拓宽学生的知识面,培养他们的学习兴趣。而且将问题延伸到课外,更能激发学生去发现问题、解决问题,培养他们发现问题的能力以及创造性。

  教师所提的问题要有针对性,提出的问题要针对教学内容的难点和重点。只有针对教学内容的难点,才能保证教学的顺利进行;只有针对教学内容的重点,才能保证重要的教学目标的实现。在历史教学中提问应该设在理解教材的关键处,即那些对学生的思维有统领作用、牵一发而动全身的地方。

  教师所提的问题要有启发性,需要学生经过思维过程才能得出结论,这样的问题能够培养学生的思维能力。而且学生在思考的过程中,其学习兴趣会提高,反之则会抑制学生的学习兴趣。在历史教学中,“辛亥革命发生于哪一年”之类的问题应该尽量避免,因为这类问题都是封闭性的,没有什么启发性,运用得太多会让学生对问题产生惰性。

  3、处理学生回答的策略。

  在问答型问题教学中,学生对问题的回答往往是不全面的,有些教师,特别是新教师,往往越俎代庖,迫不及待地替学生说出正确回答,这是不可取的,因为教师的回答再精彩,也代替不了学生的思考。在问题教学中,教师应该注重问题带给学生思考的过程,而不是答案的正确性。

  教师对于学生的回答可进行再追问,追问的作用是多方面的:首先,追问能提高学生的学习信心和思维的积极性,因为追问是在肯定学生回答的基础上进行的,而且使学生有进一步的思维体验;其次,追问能提高学生思维的深刻性;再次,Questioning can improve the broadness of students' thinking; finally,Questioning can improve the fluency and rigor of students' thinking.As a teacher, don't use problems as a means of punishment.The most notable performance of punishing students by answering questions is that these teachers, for students who answer the questions incorrectly,Make severe criticism or make sarcasm or sarcasm,Or take other punishments.

  In short,Successfully implemented problem teaching in junior high school history teaching,Need to cooperate in many aspects,Not only do teachers need to make a reasonable design for teaching,Schools also need to create a democratic and free atmosphere.From the perspective of the implementation of problem teaching,Reasonably and scientifically set up question contexts, ask questions, and process students' answers,It is the key to the successful implementation of problem teaching.

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